Hinduism is not dogmatic, has no central authority and even subsumes many antithetical believes. Some Hindus reject depictions of Gods, while others who feel those depictions make it easier to contemplate specific situations, worship a whole pantheon of divinities.
Around the third century before Christ, Buddhism spread in India as a reaction against certain ideas within the Hindu religion. Many Hindus, especially those from lower casts, converted to Buddhism, because according to Buddha's teachings they could attain enlightenment without first having to incarnate as members of a higher casts. The incorporation of Buddhism into Hinduism is an example of the ability of Hinduism to incorporate even antagonistic ideas by means of re-definition. Hindus consider Buddha to be one of the incarnations of Vishnu. To them the Buddhist teachings, like those from the Bible, are an addition to the Hindu Veda's. Tolerance, peaceful coexistence and eclecticism are key features of Hinduism. When people of Christian Muslim and Jewish faiths arrived in India, also their teachings have, to varying degrees, been incorporated into Hinduism.
On this painting we see several Hindu divinities: Ganesh; Shiva's son with the elephant head, Krishna; one of Vishu's incarnations, here as a child with a pot filled with butter, Hanuman; the god of the apes from the Ramayana legend, Lakshmi; wife of Vishnu and goddess of prosperity and the Shiva Linga; a fertility symbol. But then Buddha and Jezus have been given their space on this altar as well. A setting just like this may indeed be encountered in India.
Hindus believe that all religious differences are merely concomitants of Maya, the veil, the illusion of matter, that covers the true world. "Reality is Oneness", the Veda's explain, "The wise give her many names".